18 Mosquito News
WORLD-WIDE MOSQUITO CONTROL
A recent news Item, dated November 19, 1941,
Banpoon, Burma, carried an Interesting Item of
news — "The fight against malaria — the worst
natural enemy of efficiency on the Burma Road to
China -- was given Impetus today by the arrival
of two more members of the American anti-malaria
mission. They were entomologist W. L. Jellison
and engineer H. A. Johnson." (Note:— Mr. Johnson
took charge of the Eastern Association Group while
in Memphis. )
Mosquitoes Declared Guilty
Sleeping Sickness Carriers
Washington (U.P.) — "One of the most baffling
mysteries of medical science was believed solved
last nlaht with a government announcement that mo-
sauitoes carry sleeping sickness.
For almost 20 years federal, state and local
health authorities have sought the carrier of the
disease that kills from 250 to 500 persons and hun-
dreds of animals each year. Until now every clue
The mosquito ha.s been convicted of many of-
fenses. He is a carrier of malaria, yellow fever,
dengue and other maladies.
Scientists long have suspected him of compli-
city in the spread of encephalomyelitis (sleeping
sickness). But they never could prove It. Now
they claim conclusive proof.
Mosquito News 19
In a wholesale roundup of "suspects" the Bur-
eau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, cooperat-
ing with the University of California and Washing-
ton state and local .health authorities collected
about 10,000 mosquitoes, files and other biting
Insects. The collection was made In the Yakima
Valley of Washington during the summer of 1940
when 27 humans and 40 to 50 unvacclnated horses
had sleeping sickness.
The Insects were Identical, frozen and ship-
ped In dry Ice to the University of California
laboratory at San Francisco. Then they were divid-
ed into lots or "pools" according to family and
species, washed, ground and the serum Injected In-
One pool composed of culex tarsalls mosquitoes
produced symptoms of the St. Louis type of sleep-
ing sickness. That type received its name from
the severe epidemic which took more than 100 lives
in St. Louis during the summer of 1932.
That was the criminal medical scientists were
after. At last they had definite proof of his
It had been demonstrated previously that
mosquitoes could transmit the disease under labor-
atory conditions. But that did not prove that
they were the actual carriers of the disease. This
was the first definite proof that mosquitoes col-
lected in the field were the actual carriers.
Medical authorities said the particular spe-
cies of mosquito found carrying the virus Is wide-
spread in states west of the Mississippi. ""he
20 Mosquito News
same kind of mosquitoes, placed In a different "pool"
were found to cause sleeping sickness In horses.
Last year, according to public health service
records, there were more than 3,000 cases of human
sleeping sickness in the United States. About nine
per cent of the cases were fatal, the records showed.
The findings, while of great scientific Import-
ance, leave some questions unanswered, the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine said. The scientists
now want to know whether:
(1) Mosquitoes are the only transmitting agents
of human encephalo; (2) whether the culex tarsalls
mosquito is the only type transmitting the disease;
(3) whether mosquitoes must be abundant to cause the
disease, and (4) whether mosquitoes harbor the
disease between outbreaks.
If these facts are established, a plan for
mosquito eradication can be mapped that might con-
trol sleeping sickness as effectively as mosquito
eradication helped control yellow fever. »
Newark Sunday Ledger
November 9, 1941
Hailed On Gains In Malaria War
St. Louis (A. P. ) — "A young Iowa-born scien-
tist received medicine's highest honors today for
helping to make the tropics habitable for troops.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine pre-
sented to Dr. Lloyd E. Rozeboom of Johns Hopkins